Constitution Day of India which is also known as Samvidhan Diwas is annually celebrated on 26th November in India. This day commemorates the official adoption of the Indian constitution in 1949.
This day encourages people to take a look at the constitution to know all about their rights and also about the laws of the nation so that they can be aware of all the laws of the nation and hence it urges people to always abide by the laws and duties as a responsible citizen of the country.
The Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment on 19th November 2015 notified the decision of Government of India to celebrate the 26th day of November every year as 'Constitution Day' to promote Constitution values among citizens.
|Event||Constitution Day of India|
|Date||November 26, 2022|
|Significance||The day commemorates the official adoption of the Indian constitution in 1949.|
Constitution Day of India History:
In 1928 when India was under the colonial rule, the All Parties Conference convened a committee in Lucknow to prepare the Constitution of India, which was known as the Nehru Report. Most of the colonial India was under British rule from 1857 to 1947. From 1947 to 1950, the same legislation continued to be implemented as India was a dominion of Britain for these three years, as each princely state was convinced by Sardar Patel and V.P. Menon to sign the articles of integration with India, and the British government continued to be responsible for the external security of the country.
On November 26th, 1949, the Constituent Assembly of India formally adopted the Constitution of India. It became effective on January 26th, 1950. Thus, the constitution of India repealed the Indian Independence Act 1947 and Government of India Act 1935 when it became effective on 26 January 1950. India ceased to be a dominion of the British Crown and became a sovereign, democratic and republic with constitution. Dr. BR Ambedkar one of the greatest Indian mind of the time played a very important role in making of the constitution as he was chairman of the drafting committee responsible for creating the constitution.
The constitution was drafted by the Constituent Assembly, which was elected by elected members of the provincial assemblies. The 389-member assembly (reduced to 299 after the partition of India) took almost three years to draft the constitution holding eleven sessions over a 165-day period. The Constitution was drawn from several sources, while India's needs and conditions were given paramount importance. B R Ambedkar studied the Constitutions of over 60 countries before drafting the Constitution of India. Dr. BR Ambedkar played a very crucial in writing the constitution of India and that's why he is also referred as the father of the Indian constitution.
While deliberating the revised draft constitution, the assembly moved, discussed and disposed off 2,473 amendments out of a total of 7,635. Before adopting the constitution, the assembly held eleven sessions in 165 days. On 26 November 1949, it adopted the constitution, which was signed by 284 members. The day is celebrated as National Law Day, or Constitution Day. The day was chosen to spread the importance of the constitution and to spread thoughts and ideas of Ambedkar.
However earlier this day was only celebrated as the National Law Day, it only changed when the Government of India declared 26th November as Constitution Day on 19th November 2015 by a gazette notification. The Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi made the declaration on 11 October 2015 while laying the foundation stone of the B. R. Ambedkar's Statue of Equality memorial in Mumbai. As BR Ambedkar played a very important role in making of the constitution so this very important day of 26th November was chosen to spread the importance of the constitution and to spread thoughts and ideas of Ambedkar.
Constitution Day of India Significance:
The Constitution of India is a set of written principles and precedents of the Government of India. It frames fundamental political principles, procedures, rights, directive principles, restrictions, and duties of the government and the citizens of the country. The Constitution of India declares the country a sovereign, secular, socialist, and democratic republic. It assures its citizen's equality, liberty, and justice. The main objectives of celebrating this day is to recognize the important principles which formed the basis of the Constitution. These principles include the rule of law, independence of the judiciary and the independence of legal profession.
In a democracy, the Constitution is a sacred text for the Government- It lays a strong foundation for a parliamentary democracy to function accordingly. The Constitution is the supreme law of a nation and it becomes even more important as India is the largest democracy in the world, and its Constitution serves as a guiding light for it to function smoothly and vibrantly. Ever evolving, the Constitution of India is dynamic and adapts itself to changing times, to address the changing needs and requirements of a developing nation.
The Supreme Court (SC) supports the goals of the Constitution. This Court is the defender of the Constitution and the principles laid down, human rights, and peace. It has always responded to the changes within the society and moved with its pace. It has intervened to protect democracy, human rights and to honour the rule of law. Through Article 21 of the Constitution, it has given more information and purpose to the law. The Court is an independent judiciary, under the scheme of the Constitution, and it has played a good role in acting as a vigilant officer through various legislatures and executive directives.
The Preamble of Constitution is very important in defining India, it is a brief introductory statement setting out guidelines for the people of the nation as well as presenting principles of the Constitution. It is the preface which highlights the entire Constitution and embodies fundamental values, philosophy & ethos on which our Constitution is based and built. It includes Fundamental Rights (Liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith & worship) and Fundamental Duties (Justice, social, economic & political). This day is observed with an aim to make every citizen of the country aware of the importance of constitution.
This day is also celebrated in honor and memory of one of the greatest Indian leader if all time who is Dr. BR Ambedkar. He played a very crucial role in setting up the foundation for the new and independent India. He played a very critical role in reforming the Indian society as he is known for his struggle against caste discrimination. As a freedom fighter also he played an important role in advocating for India's freedom against the British. After independence he was the architect of the Indian constitution and served as the first Law Minister of India. Hence this day celebrates his legacy.
Constitution Day of India Celebrations:
As part of the celebrations, a number of activities aimed at highlighting and reiterating the values and principles enshrined in the Constitution are being organised. An important part of the celebrations is the reading of the Preamble to the Constitution and reaffirming our commitment to uphold its ideology.
Constitution Day is not a public holiday, however, government departments and schools across the country acknowledge the day with various events and activities. As per the Department of Education and Literacy, the preamble of the constitution is read in all schools by all students as a way to make then aware about the constitution and laws of the nation.
In addition, there are quiz and essay competitions organized both online and offline on the subject of the constitution of India. There is also a lecture on salient features of the constitution in each school. The Department of Higher Education also requests various universities to arrange mock parliamentary debates in colleges and universities across the country.
The Ministry of External Affairs has also directed all overseas Indian schools to celebrate 26 November as Constitution Day and directed embassies to translate the constitution into the local language of that nation and distribute it to various academies, libraries and faculties of Indology so that everyone can be aware of the constitution of the country.
Most Searched FAQs on Constitution Day of India:
1. When is Constitution Day of India celebrated?
Constitution Day is annually celebrated on 26th November in India.
2. Why 26th Nov is Constitution Day?
The Constitution Day, also known as "Samvidhan Divas" is celebrated every year on November 26 to commemorate adoption of the Constitution of India. On November 26, 1949, the Constituent Assembly of India adopted the Constitution of India, which came into effect from January 26, 1950.
3. Who is known as the father of the Indian Constitution?
Dr. BR Ambedkar is known as the father of the Indian Constitution.